So what did I miss? Well, this was a 14 year observational study sponsored by the American Cancer Society involving 53,440 men (avg 63.6yo) and 69,776 women (avg 61.9yo) who were all disease-free at enrollment. These individuals were part of ACS' Cancer Prevention Study II and specifically selected because they did not have a personal history of cancer, heart attack, stroke, or emphysema/other lung disease. Others from the larger cohort were excluded due to missing information.
check out Part 4!